ARCAD service includes online resources, software programs and mobile apps that allow electricians, contractors, engineers, facility managers to perform fault current calculations, determine incident energy, arc flash protection boundary, level of personal protection equipment PPEand to create customized arc flash warning labels meeting OSHA, NFPA 70E, CSA Z regulations and code requirements. ARCAD is manufacturing high-quality, dependable workplace, fire safety, facility signs and posters you can trust to keep employees and work sites safe. We offer standard materials and sizes, and an easy to use online shopping experience. Search by keyword, part number or category to find exactly what you need to help keep your workers safe and your workplace compliant with safety regulations.
Finding areas of a program not exercised by a set of test cases, Creating additional test cases to increase coverage, and Determining a quantitative measure of code coverage, which is an indirect measure of quality. An optional aspect of code coverage analysis is: Identifying redundant test cases that do not increase coverage.
A code coverage analyzer automates this process. You use coverage analysis to assure quality of your set of tests, not the quality of the actual product.
You do not generally use a coverage analyzer when running your set of tests through your release candidate. Coverage analysis requires access to test program source code and often requires recompiling it with a special command.
This paper discusses the details Fault lines analysis should consider when planning to add coverage analysis to your test plan. Coverage analysis has certain strengths and weaknesses. You must choose from a range of measurement methods.
You should establish a minimum percentage of coverage, to determine when to stop analyzing coverage. Coverage analysis is one of many testing techniques; you should not rely on it alone.
Code coverage analysis is sometimes called test coverage analysis. The two terms are synonymous. The academic world more often uses the term "test coverage" while practitioners more often use "code coverage".
Likewise, a coverage analyzer is sometimes called a coverage monitor Structural Testing and Functional Testing Code coverage analysis is a structural testing technique AKA glass box testing and white box testing.
Structural testing compares test program behavior against the apparent intention of the source code. This contrasts with functional testing AKA black-box testingwhich compares test program behavior against a requirements specification. Structural testing examines how the program works, taking into account possible pitfalls in the structure and logic.
Functional testing examines what the program accomplishes, without regard to how it works internally. Structural testing is also called path testing since you choose test cases that cause paths to be taken through the structure of the program.
Do not confuse path testing with the path coverage metric, explained later. At first glance, structural testing seems unsafe.
Structural testing cannot find errors of omission. However, requirements specifications sometimes do not exist, and are rarely complete. This is especially true near the end of the product development time line when the requirements specification is updated less frequently and the product itself begins to take over the role of the specification.
The difference between functional and structural testing blurs near release time. The Premise The basic assumptions behind coverage analysis tell us about the strengths and limitations of this testing technique.
Some fundamental assumptions are listed below. Bugs relate to control flow and you can expose Bugs by varying the control flow [ Beizer p. For example, a programmer wrote "if c " rather than "if!
You can look for failures without knowing what failures might occur and all tests are reliable, in that successful test runs imply program correctness [ Morell ]. The tester understands what a correct version of the program would do and can identify differences from the correct behavior.
Other assumptions include achievable specifications, no errors of omission, and no unreachable code.
Clearly, these assumptions do not always hold. Coverage analysis exposes some plausible bugs but does not come close to exposing all classes of bugs. Coverage analysis provides more benefit when applied to an application that makes a lot of decisions rather than data-centric applications, such as a database application.
Basic Metrics A large variety of coverage metrics exist. This section contains a summary of some fundamental metrics and their strengths, weaknesses and issues. Few other organizations have such requirements, so the FAA is influential in the definitions of these metrics.
Statement Coverage This metric reports whether each executable statement is encountered.The fault analysis of a power system is required in order to provide information for the selection of switchgear, setting of relays and stability of system operation.
A power. NERC | 1, MW Fault Induced Solar Photovoltaic Resource Interruption Disturbance Report | June 1 Chapter 1: Event Summary On August 16, , at a.m.
Pacific, the Blue Cut fire began in the Cajon Pass, just east of Interstate Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy at benjaminpohle.com Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users.
© PowerWorld Corporation I Fault Analysis • Analysis of power system parameters resulting from a ground or line to line fault somewhere in the system. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Fault in Our Stars Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays.
Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy [Raghuram G. Rajan] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Raghuram Rajan was one of the few economists who warned of the global financial crisis before it hit. Now.