Thu, 18 Jul
Varieties of English British English The abbreviation RP Received Pronunciation denotes what is traditionally considered the standard accent of people living in London and the southeast of England and of other people elsewhere who speak in this way.
RP is the only British accent that has no specific geographical correlate: Although acquiring its unique standing without the aid of any established authority, it was fostered by the public schools Winchester, Eton, Harrow, Rugby, and so on and the ancient universities Oxford and Cambridge.
Other varieties of English are well preserved in spite of the leveling influences of film, television, and radio.
In various Northern accents the definite article the is heard Metathesis middle english t, th, or d. In those accents in which it becomes both t and th, t is used before consonants and th before vowels.
In some Northern dialects strong verbs retain the old past-tense singular forms band, brak, fand, spak for standard English forms bound, broke, found, and spoke. Strong verbs also retain the past participle inflection -en as in comen, shutten, sitten, and getten or gotten for standard English come, shut, sat, and got.
In some Midland accents the diphthongs in throat and stone have been kept apart, whereas in RP they have fallen together. In Norfolk one hears skellington and solintary for skeleton and solitary, showing an intrusive n just as does messenger in RP from French messager, passenger from French passager, and nightingale from Old English nihtegala.
Other East Anglian words show consonantal metathesis switch positionas in singify for signify, and substitution of one liquid or nasal for another, as in chimbly for chimney and synnable for syllable.
Hantle for handful shows syncope disappearance of an unstressed vowel, partial assimilation of d to t before voiceless f, and subsequent loss of f in a triple consonant group. In some South Western accents, initial f and s are often voiced, becoming v and z.
Two words with initial v have found their way into RP: Another South Western feature is the development of a d between l or n and r, as in parlder for parlour and carnder for corner.
In some South Western accents yat comes from the old singular geat, whereas RP gate comes from the plural gatu.
Likewise, clee comes from the old nominative clea, whereas RP claw comes from the oblique cases. In Wales, people often speak a clear and measured form of English with rising intonations inherited from ancestral Celtic. Scotsor Lowland Scottishwas once a part of Northern English, but the two dialects began to diverge in the 14th century.
A few Scots words, such as bairn, brae, canny, dour, and pawky, have made their way into RP. Scots is not to be confused with Scottish Gaelica Celtic language still spoken by about 60, people almost all bilingual mostly in the Highlands and the Western Isles.
Northern Ireland has dialects related in part to Scots and in part to the southern Irish dialect of English. American and Canadian English The dialect regions of the United States are most clearly marked along the Atlantic littoral, where the earlier settlements were made.
Three dialects can be defined: Northern, Midland, and Southern. Each has its subdialects.Brief definitions of obscure words starting with the letter M. 1 English History and Structure of the English Language Lengthening and Shortening of Vowels Two sound changes with opposite effects took place during the Middle English period.
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Middle English Literature mostly religious and didactic works; oral presentation; more verse than prose; alliterative verse gave way to syllable-counting, rhymed verse; new genres: romance, lyric secular prose: letters, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, John Capgrave's Chronicle of England, Thomas Malory's Morte Darthur, Thomas Usk's Testament of Love.
Middle Dutch makelare broker (by metathesis), equivalent. to makel(en) to bring together + -are-er 1 Old French, perh. same word as Middle French maquerel pimp Middle English – Guarayu (Tupí-Guaraní, Bolivia) has undergone a diachronic process of metathesis in which a word-final tap /ɾ/ exchanged positions with a preceding high nonfront vowel /ɨ/ or /u/.
We propose a scenario for how such an exchange could occur, using Guarayu as a case study. A tap/vowel metathesis is presented as a timing readjustment that led to an exchange of phonemic status between a.