Any approach to educational development is a multi-faceted affair, with many dimensions on which decisions must be made, and numerous alternatives from which to choose on each dimension.
Rhetoric focuses action toward: American politics normally focuses action on individuals so there is no institutional change. Even in times of more dramatic political activity, the focus is on institutions.
More dramatic forms of social change, therefore, must rely on non-governmental and non-institutional sources.
Social movements are such a strategy. American social change has been intensively linked with public voice. The founding discourse of the United States stresses the voice of people. In addition, the United States is a nation of new groups, most notably the immigrants but also nativist groups such as new religions and utopians of various kinds.
Social movements are such groups founded for particular purposes. The result is that, in addition to the traditional movements that urge political change from outside the political system, two additional types of social movement have characterized movements in the United States: Identity movements provide a place for those who share a particular characteristic -- ethnic origin, sex, race, religion, creed -- to have public voice.
Movements provide a context for the discourse that declares discontents to be more than private pain and for isolation of experience to be artificial.
Identity movements provide people who had seen themselves as separated and isolated to embrace others and join with them to declare their identity. Integrative movements seek to provide groups access to dominant structures of power. They seek to reorient the distribution of societal power to drain more power into the protesting groups.
Thus, major social change in America has tended to be non-institutional. Even when change comes through the political system, it normally starts non-institutionally.
Where political rhetoric tends to emphasize pragmatism, social movements tend to emphasize idealistic rhetoric. The favorite strategy of American social movements is to ground the ideal in the American Declaration of Independence.
This document founds the nation in idealism and commits the national community to the pursuit of ideals. Americans dream dreams and then go on to accomplish them.
A rhetoric of moral condemnation develops that compares experience with ideal. Rhetoric in American social movements tends to follow a standard pattern of rhetorical evolution: Develops a language to articulate discontent.
This language uses narratives, metaphors, and other rhetorical devices to capture the morality of the discontent. It is a language that identifies people together from their common sense of discontent. Movements will succeed in growing as they are able to articulate the discontent. Identifies responsibility for the discontent.
That is, the rhetoric develops a target for action. The scope of responsibility is a key to this move: It brings a focus to responsibility. The rhetoric is often polemic, exaggerating the differences between the movement and its target. The rhetoric "perfects" this target, or creates the target's responsibility for the discontent.
Focuses and directs the energy of the movement toward the target. In this mature stage the movement celebrates its successes. It is a rhetoric rich in the experience of being in the movement, the satisfactions, the dreams of success, and the accomplishments of the movement's work.Prelude.
Above the headmaster’s desk in the primary school I attended in rural Trinidad, there was a blackboard on which was neatly chalked the names and titles of heads of state and other important international officials of the time.
Rachel A. Willis is a Professor of American Studies and Adjunct Professor of Economics at UNC. She has won numerous awards including the UNC Board of Governors Award for Excellence in Teaching, two Student Undergraduate Teaching Awards, and the Robert Sigmon Award for Service Learning.
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Analyse the Marketing Opportunities and Challenges Faced by a Selected Business When Using Internet Marketing.
Applying Lean Management Essay example Osmosis and Diffusion Lab Report Introduction All Cells Contain Membranes That Are Selectively Permeable, Allowing Certain Things to Pass Into and Leave Out of the Cell.
the Process in Which.