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It is best to start with the extensive but problematic later evidence and work back to the earlier reliable evidence. Diogenes may have some claim to objectivity, but both Iamblichus and Porphyry have strong agendas that have little to do with historical accuracy.
These three third-century accounts of Pythagoras were in turn based on earlier sources, which are now lost. Some of these earlier sources were heavily contaminated by the Neopythagorean view of Pythagoras as the source of all true philosophy, whose ideas Plato, Aristotle and all later Greek philosophers plagiarized.
Iamblichus cites biographies of Pythagoras by Nicomachus of Gerasa and a certain Apollonius VP and and appears to have used them extensively even where they are not cited Burkert a, 98 ff.
If the Apollonius cited by Iamblichus is Apollonius of Tyana 1st CEhis account will be influenced by his veneration of Pythagoras as the model for his ascetic life, but some scholars argue that Iamblichus is using an otherwise unknown Apollonius Flinterman Porphyry VP 48—53 explicitly cites Moderatus of Gades as one of his sources.
In the Pythagorean Memoirs, Pythagoras is said to have adopted the Monad and the Indefinite Dyad as incorporeal principles, from which arise first the numbers, then plane and solid figures and finally the bodies of the sensible world Diogenes Laertius VIII.
Diels, Doxographi Graeci I. The testimony of Aristotle makes completely clear, however, that this was the philosophical system of Plato in his later years and not that of Pythagoras or even the later Pythagoreans. This view of Pythagoreanism finds its way into the doxography of Aetius either because Theophrastus followed the early Academy rather than his teacher Aristotle Burkert a, 66 or because the Theophrastan doxography on Pythagoras was rewritten in the first century BCE under the influence of Neopythagoreanism Diels; Zhmud a, The evidence for the early Academy is, however, very limited and some reject the thesis that its members assigned late Platonic metaphysics to Pythagoras Zhmud— Proclus quotes a passage in which Speusippus assigns to the ancients, who in this context are the Pythagoreans, the One and the Indefinite Dyad.
Some scholars argue that this is not a genuine fragment of Speusippus but rather a later fabrication see Zhmud a, — and for a response Dillon If the Academy did not assign the One and the Dyad to Pythagoras, however, it becomes less clear how these principles came to be assigned to him.
If we step back for a minute and compare the sources for Pythagoras with those available for other early Greek philosophers, the extent of the difficulties inherent in the Pythagorean Question becomes clear. Since Pythagoras wrote no books, this most fundamental of all sources is denied us.
In dealing with Heraclitus, the modern scholar turns with reluctance next to the doxographical tradition, the tradition represented by Aetius in the first century CE, which preserves in handbook form a systematic account of the beliefs of the Greek philosophers on a series of topics having to do with the physical world and its first principles.
Here again the case of Pythagoras is exceptional. Thus, the second standard source for evidence for early Greek philosophy is, in the case of Pythagoras, corrupted. Whatever views Pythagoras might have had are replaced by late Platonic metaphysics in the doxographical tradition.
A third source of evidence for early Greek philosophy is regarded with great skepticism by most scholars and, in the case of most early Greek philosophers, used only with great caution.
This is the biographical tradition represented by the Lives of the Philosophers written by Diogenes Laertius. Unfortunately, these two additional lives are written by authors Iamblichus and Porphyry whose goal is explicitly non-historical, and all three of the lives rely heavily on authors in the Neopythagorean tradition, whose goal was to show that all later Greek philosophy, insofar as it was true, had been stolen from Pythagoras.
The historian Timaeus of Tauromenium ca.
In some cases, the fragments of these early works are clearly identified in the later lives, but in other cases we may suspect that they are the source of a given passage without being able to be certain.Shadow Princess has 2, ratings and reviews.
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The case discusses the people practices, also known as the Taj People Philosophy (TPP), at the Taj Group of Hotels. The case explains the various components of the philosophy.
The case also discusses the 'Special Thanks and Recognition System' (STARS), a recognition and reward system for employees adopted by the group. It signifies a living philosophy.
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the taj people’s philosphy and star system THE TAJ’S PEOPLE PHILOSOPHY and STAR SYSTEM The employee at Taj is viewed as an asset and is the real profit centre. In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded .